Glossary: Q - R



A higher quality designation for German wine. The letters QmP and QbA are higher and lower, respectively, levels inside of this higher quality tier of wines.


Quarts de Chaume

A small, high-quality appellation in the Loire Valley specifically for sweet wines. This AOC sits inside of the greater Coteaux du Layon AOC, on banks of the Layon and its tributaries.



A term used in Portugal to denote a single wine estate.



This is a term that denotes a style of oxidized, almost burnt, styles of wines that are mostly fortified. Appellations such as Rivesaltes and Maury in the southern portion of France are noted for producing this style of wine.


An Italian winemaking term for the drying of the grapes before pressing and fermentation. This concentrates the sugar and intensifies the flavor, and many regions in Italy are famous for this style of wine.


A large format wine bottle (named, of course, after a biblical king) that hold 4.5 liters or 6 750ml bottles of wine.

A winemaking term for the turning of the bottles during a period of rest to gather the sediment and yeast cells, most utilized in Champagne. Also known as riddling.


A label term that holds little meaning across the world, as it is rarely regulated outside of the European Union. Countries such as Austria, Germany and Switzerland have specific regulations regarding the use of this term. Places such as Napa Valley have a plethora of producers who use this term for many different purposes.


Residual sugar
This is a phrase that describes the leftover sugar in the finished wine after fermentation is complete. This can be either intentional or accidental,   


Reverse osmosis

A filtration process utilized in the production of beverages, and sometimes controversially used in the production of wine. The producers using this method will have more extraction and a more manipulated and marketable offering.


Rhône Valley
A prolific wine region in the southeastern part of France. The appellations of Hermitage, Crozes Hermitage, Cornas, Côte-Rôtie, Châteauneuf-du-Pape are the stars of the region. Most of the wines are based on Syrah (in the north) and Grenache (in the south), with many of the top wines of the region commanding high prices in line with highest offerings of Bordeaux and Burgundy. 


A grape that needs no introduction, yet is often misunderstood as a sweet, quaffing wine relegated to porch pounder status for those not enjoying dry wine. However, there was a time not too long ago that Riesling commanded higher prices than Bordeaux or Burgundy. Germany is the most notable country who produces the grape, having a wine range of styles and sweetness levels. The German wine laws are the most confusing thing in the world of wine, only adding to the general confusion about the quality and potential of the grape. The dry examples of German Riesling may be the most underrated white wines in the world. Austria makes great Riesling, tending to be more on the dry side of the spectrum. The Danube River valley is well suited to Riesling production, that thrives in cold, harsh condition where vintners must use their skill, ingenuity and historical guidelines to ripen the fruit properly. Countries such as Germany and Austria will utilize the sunshine that reflects off the rivers and tributaries to raise the ambient temperatures in the vineyard just enough to get more ripeness out of the hanging grapes. You can find both outstanding and historically significant examples in Alsace as well, the French outpost for the Riesling grape. New world areas making strides with the grape are Oregon, Washington State and California, along with New York State, which has a long history of growing Riesling in the Finger Lakes region. New Zealand, Australia and Chile all make great examples of the grape, with drier styles being the star performers of the new world examples.



The most notable wine region from Spain, along with Ribera Del Duero and Priorat. This area has been producing fine wine for hundreds of years and the offerings are right on par with Bordeaux. The main grape here is Tempranillo, with Garnacha playing a role in some areas.


The plant material (base of the grapevine) that is utilized to grow the grapevines, usually chosen for their disease and drought resistance.